Isifinyezo: umthetho kanye nenqubomgomo yokutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe e-Indonesia | Aici


Umthetho nenqubomgomo

Izinqubomgomo nezinqubo

Ngokujwayelekile, zithini izinqubomgomo nezinqubo zikahulumeni wakho mayelana nokwengamela kanye nokubuyekezwa kokutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe?

Ukutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe e-Indonesia ngokuvamile kulawulwa ngaphansi koMthetho No. NgokoMthetho Wokutshalwa Kwezimali, uhulumeni uzo:

  • ukunikeza impatho elinganayo kubatshalizimali basekhaya nakubatshalizimali bakwamanye amazwe abatshala imali e-Indonesia, kuncike emithethweni neziqondiso ezikhona kanye nentshisekelo kazwelonke; futhi
  • hlinzeka ngokuqiniseka okungokomthetho, isiqiniseko sebhizinisi kanye nokuphepha kwebhizinisi kubatshalizimali kusukela ekuqaleni kokutshalwa kwezimali, njengesicelo selayisensi yebhizinisi kuze kube yisikhathi lapho abatshalizimali benquma ukuqeda ukutshalwa kwezimali kwabo e-Indonesia ngokuvumelana nemithetho neziqondiso ezikhona.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, uMthetho Wokutshalwa Kwezimali ugunyaza ukuthi uhulumeni anganquma ukuthi yimiphi imikhakha yebhizinisi evulekile, evulwe ngemikhawulo ethile noma evaliwe ukutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe. Le mikhakha ibekwe obala ‘Ohlwini Olubi’.

Uhlu Olubi lubuyekezwa ngezikhathi ezithile futhi lubuyekezwe ngendlela yomthethonqubo kamongameli, ongomunye wemithethonqubo yokusebenzisa uMthetho Wokutshalwa Kwezimali, ngemva kokucabangela izici ezihlukahlukene, okuhlanganisa ukuphepha kwezwe, izithakazelo zezwe, ukuthuthukiswa komnotho wezwe, ukuvikelwa kwezwe lasekhaya. izimboni, ukubandakanyeka kwama-SME nokudalwa kwamathuba omsebenzi.

Uhlu Olukhona Olungalungile lulawulwa ngaphansi KoMthetho Kamongameli No. 10 wezi-2021 njengoba uchitshiyelwe Umthethonqubo Kamongameli No. 49 wezi-2021 Ezindaweni Zebhizinisi Lotshalomali (PR 10/2021). Ngokuvamile, Uhlu lwamanje Olubi ngaphansi kwe-PR 10/2021 lunemikhawulo emincane kuneziphindaphindo zangaphambilini. Lokhu kungenxa yoMthetho No. 11 ka-2020 Wokudala Umsebenzi (uMthetho We-Omnibus). Umthetho we-Omnibus ugunyaza uhulumeni ukuthi adambise imikhawulo emisebenzini yokutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe ukuze akhuthaze ukwenza ibhizinisi kalula ngomgomo omkhulu wokuheha abatshalizimali bakwamanye amazwe e-Indonesia ukuze adale imisebenzi eyengeziwe yabantu base-Indonesia.

Ngokuya nge-PR 10/2021, okwamanje kunemikhakha yebhizinisi engama-69 evalekile ekutshalweni kwezimali kwamanye amazwe njengoba eqondiswe ngokukhethekile kuma-SME, njengamabhizinisi endabuko noma amabhizinisi angadingi inani elikhulu lemali – ngokwesibonelo, imboni ye-rattan, imboni yezingubo zendabuko, izimakethe ezincane kanye nezitolo zamakhophi.

Ukwengeza, kunemikhakha yebhizinisi engama-26 ekhawulelwe ngokwengxenye ekutshalweni kwezimali kwamanye amazwe ngokuthi abanikazi bawo ngamaphesenti ayi-100 emali yangaphakathi noma ukutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe kukhawulelwe kumaphesenti athile aphezulu. Izibonelo zifaka ukuthunyelwa (ubukhulu obungamaphesenti angama-49 utshalomali lwangaphandle), ezokuthutha ngendiza (ubukhulu obungamaphesenti angama-49 utshalomali lwangaphandle), izinsiza zokuthumela izincwadi (ubukhulu obungamaphesenti angama-49 obutshalomali bangaphandle) kanye nabezindaba (amaphesenti angu-100 otshalomali lwangaphakathi ngesikhathi sokusungulwa kanye nobukhulu obungama-20 isenti lokutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe ukuze kukhuliswe imali noma ukunwetshwa kwebhizinisi ngemuva kokusungulwa). Ngaphandle kwaleyo mikhakha yebhizinisi evaliwe nebekelwe imingcele, yonke eminye imikhakha yebhizinisi ivuliwe ngaphandle kokuvinjelwa ekutshalweni kwezimali kwamanye amazwe.

Njengesiqhathaniso, ngaphansi kohlu oludala Olungalungile, olwalulawulwa ngaphansi koMthethonqubo kaMongameli No. 44 ka-2016 (PR 44/2016), kwakukhona imigqa ye-163 kanye ne-228 yamabhizinisi eyayivalwe ngokugcwele futhi ivaliwe ngokwengxenye ekutshalweni kwezimali kwamanye amazwe, ngokulandelanayo. Ngokusekelwe kule nombolo, i-PR 10/2021 inciphisa imigqa yamabhizinisi ayevaliwe noma avalwe kancane ekutshalweni kwezimali kwamanye amazwe ngaphansi kwe-PR 44/2016 cishe ngamaphesenti angama-75.

Imithetho esemqoka

Yimiphi imithetho eyinhloko elawula ngokuqondile noma ngokungaqondile ukutholwa kanye nokutshalwa kwezimali kwabantu bangaphandle nabatshalizimali ngesisekelo sentshisekelo kazwelonke?

Imithethonqubo eyinhloko yokutshalwa kwezimali ngabatshalizimali bakwamanye amazwe uMthetho Wokutshalwa Kwezimali kanye ne-PR 10/2021.

Ngokuphathelene nentshisekelo kazwelonke, uhulumeni wase-Indonesia uvale imikhakha yebhizinisi elandelayo kukho kokubili ukutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe kanye nasekhaya:

  • iziphuzo ezidakayo;
  • izidakamizwa;
  • ukugembula noma imisebenzi yekhasino;
  • imisebenzi yezokudoba maqondana nezinhlobo zezilwane ezisohlwini lweSithasiselo I seNgqungquthela Yokuhweba Ngamazwe Ngezinhlobo Zezilwane Nezitshalo Zasendle Ezisengcupheni yokushabalala;
  • ukusetshenziswa kanye nokuthathwa kwamakhorali nezimbaza ezindaweni zemvelo ukuze zisetshenziswe emanzini, njengezikhumbuzo, ubucwebe noma njengempahla yokwakha;
  • izikhali zamakhemikhali; futhi
  • izinto ezisetshenziswa ezimbonini zamakhemikhali kanye ne-ozone layer eqeda izinto.

Kukhona futhi imikhakha yebhizinisi ehlelelwe ama-SME, ngakho-ke, avaliwe ukutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe. Amabhizinisi akule mikhakha (1) adinga ulwazi lwendabuko, (2) awadingi imali eningi kanye nabasebenzi noma (3) ngokuvamile aqhutshwa ama-SME. Izibonelo zifaka izimakethe ezincane, izikhungo zezokuvakasha kanye nezitolo zokugunda izinwele.

Ububanzi besicelo

Chaza ububanzi bokusetshenziswa kwale mithetho, okuhlanganisa ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo zokutshalwa kwezimali noma ukuthengiselana okubanjiwe. Ingabe izithakazelo ezincane zibanjiwe? Ingabe ikhona imikhakha ethile lapho iziphathimandla zinamandla okubheka nokuvimbela ukutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe noma imikhakha okudingidwa kuyo ukuhlolwa okukhethekile?

Umthetho Wokutshalwa Kwezimali ulawula, phakathi kwezinye izinto:

  • inqubo yokutshala izimali e-Indonesia;
  • yiluphi uhlobo lwebhizinisi olungasungulwa ngabatshalizimali bakwamanye amazwe;
  • amalungelo kanye nezibopho zabatshalizimali bakwamanye amazwe; futhi
  • amalungelo kahulumeni okunquma ukuthi yimaphi amabhizinisi avalelwe ukutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-PR 10/2021 ibeka uhlu lwemikhakha yebhizinisi evaliwe noma evuliwe ngemikhawulo ethile yokutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe. ‘Ukuvulwa ngemikhawulo ethile’ kusho ukuthi leyo mikhakha yebhizinisi (1) ivuleleke kumaphesenti athile aphezulu otshalomali lwangaphandle noma (2) ivulekele utshalomali lwangaphandle olungamaphesenti ayi-100 inqobo nje uma umtshali-zimali wangaphandle engena ebudlelwaneni nama-SME endawo ekuqhubeni. ibhizinisi.

Umthetho Wokutshalwa Kwezimali ubeka ukuthi ukutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe kufanele kwenziwe ngendlela yezinkampani ezibophezelekile ezilinganiselwe ezimiswe ngokufanelekile ngaphansi kwemithetho yeRiphabhulikhi yase-Indonesia. Abatshalizimali bakwamanye amazwe abafisa ukutshala imali e-Indonesia ngendlela yenkampani enesibopho esilinganiselwe bangase:

  • ukusungula inkampani entsha yezikweletu ezinomkhawulo futhi ubhalisele amasheya enkampani esanda kusungulwa;
  • ukuthenga amasheya kubanikazi bamasheya abakhona benkampani enezikweletu ezilinganiselwe;
  • bhalisela amasheya akhishwe inkampani ekhona enezikweletu ezinomkhawulo; futhi
  • ezinye izinqubo ngokuhambisana nemithetho neziqondiso ezikhona.

Ngokwabanikazi bamasheya abambalwa, uMthetho Wokutshalwa Kwezimali awulawuli ngokusobala usayizi wokutshalwa kwezimali owenziwe ngumtshali-zimali wangaphandle. Noma yikuphi ukubamba iqhaza kwezimali zakwamanye amazwe ezinkampanini zezikweletu ezikhawulelwe zase-Indonesia kuzobhekwa njengokutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe, ngakho-ke, kuzoba ngaphansi kwemithetho neziqondiso ezifanele zokutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe.

Empeleni, i-Indonesian Investment Coordinating Board (manje eyaziwa ngokuthi uMnyango Wezokutshalwa Kwezimali; BKPM) yengamele umsebenzi wokutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe e-Indonesia. I-BKPM ayikuhloli kusengaphambili noma ukugunyaza kusengaphambili ukutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe. Ngakho-ke, inqobo nje uma abatshalizimali bakwamanye amazwe bethobela Uhlu Olubi ngaphansi kwe-PR 10/2021 kanye nezimfuneko ezithile ezibekwe yi-BKPM (njengemali ekhokhelwa kancane ekhokhelwayo kanye nenani elincane lokutshalwa kwezimali), bazovunyelwa ukusungula inkampani yokutshala imali yangaphandle I-Indonesia. Sekushiwo lokho, kusenemikhakha embalwa yebhizinisi edinga izinqubo ezithile okufanele zenziwe ngaphambi kokuqhuba ibhizinisi e-Indonesia; isibonelo, izinkampani ezibambe iqhaza emkhakheni wezezimali zingaphansi kwezidingo ezithile ezinqunywe yi-Indonesian Financial Authority (OJK).

Izincazelo

Umtshali-zimali wangaphandle noma utshalomali lwangaphandle uchazwa kanjani emthethweni osebenzayo?

Umthetho Wokutshalwa Kwezimali uchaza ‘umtshali-zimali wangaphandle’ njengomuntu wangaphandle, inkampani yangaphandle noma uhulumeni wangaphandle otshala imali endaweni ye-Republic of Indonesia. ‘Ukutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe’ kuchazwa njengomsebenzi wokutshalwa kwezimali wokuqhuba ibhizinisi endaweni yeRiphabhulikhi yase-Indonesia oqhutshwa abatshalizimali bakwamanye amazwe, ngokusebenzisa ngokuphelele imali yangaphandle noma ngokuhlanganyela nabatshalizimali basekhaya. Ngakho-ke, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi yiliphi iphesenti lamasheya phakathi kwenhloko-dolobha yangaphandle kanye nenhloko-dolobha yasekhaya, noma iyiphi inkampani ehlangene phakathi kwenhloko-dolobha yangaphandle kanye nenhloko-dolobha yasekhaya ehlanganiswe ngokuhambisana nemithetho yase-Indonesia ithathwa njengenhloko-dolobha yakwamanye amazwe.

Imithetho ekhethekile yama-SOE nama-SWF

Ingabe ikhona imithetho ekhethekile yokutshalwa kwezimali okwenziwa amabhizinisi kahulumeni angaphandle (ama-SOE) kanye nezikhwama zezimali ezizimele (ama-SWF)? Ichazwa kanjani i-SOE noma i-SWF?

Akukho mehluko noma imithetho ekhethekile yokutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe okwenziwa ama-SOE noma ama-SWF angaphandle. Ngakho-ke, noma yikuphi ukutshalwa kwezimali okwenziwa ama-SOE noma ama-SWF angaphandle kuzothathwa ngokuthi utshalomali olujwayelekile lwangaphandle oluqhutshwa yiqembu langaphandle.

Iziphathimandla ezifanele

Yiziphi izikhulu noma izinhlaka eziyiziphathimandla ezinamandla zokubuyekeza ukuhlanganiswa noma ukutholwa ngezizathu zenzuzo kazwelonke?

Ngaphambi kuka-2018, i-BKPM izobuyekeza ukuhlanganiswa nokutholwa ngokombono wotshalomali lwangaphandle. Ihlole ukuthi ingabe ukuhlanganiswa noma ukutholwa kuhambisana Nohlu Olubi olukhona kanye neminye imithetho yokutshalwa kwezimali kwamanye amazwe. Ngemva kokwenza isibuyekezo, izokhipha imvume engaphakathi kwesimiso ukuze kuqedelwe okwenziwayo. Ngakho-ke, empeleni, ukugunyazwa okungaphakathi kwesimiso okuvela ku-BKPM kuthathwe njengesandulela sombandela okufanele sigcwaliseke ngaphambi kokuvalwa komsebenzi. Kodwa-ke, kusukela kwethulwa uhlelo oludidiyelwe lwamalayisense ku-inthanethi – uhlelo lwe-Online Single Submission (OSS) – ngo-2018, i-BKPM ayisakwenzi ukubuyekezwa mayelana nokuhambisana nemithetho yokutshala izimali kwamanye amazwe. Manje, yenza ukuqapha ngemuva kokuvalwa kwezinkampani zokutshala izimali zakwamanye amazwe. Ukuqapha ngemva kokuvalwa ngokuvamile kwenziwa ngokusekelwe emibikweni yokutshalwa kwezimali yezikhathi ezithile eyisibopho ethunyelwa izinkampani zokutshala izimali zakwamanye amazwe ku-BKPM. Uma i-BKPM ithola ukuthi inkampani ayithobeli imithetho ekhona, ingase inikeze isexwayiso ukuze ilungise ukwephulwa komthetho.

Ukwengeza, ngokombono womthetho wokuncintisana, ukuhlanganiswa noma ukutholwa kungase kube ngaphansi kwemithetho efanele ngaphansi kokuqondisa kweKhomishini Yokuncintisana yase-Indonesia (KPPU). I-KPPU igunyazwe ukuthi ihlole ukuhlanganiswa nokutholwa ukuze inqume ukuthi ingabe ukuthengiswa okunjalo kuzoholela emikhubeni yokubusa komuntu oyedwa noma ukuncintisana kwebhizinisi okungalungile.

Ngaphandle kwemithetho nezinqubomgomo ezishiwo ngenhla, kungakanani ukuqonda okufanele iziphathimandla zivume noma zenqabe ukuthengiselana ngezizathu zenzuzo kazwelonke?

Kusukela kwethulwa isistimu ye-OSS ngo-2018, i-BKPM ayisaqhubeki nokubuyekeza noma ukunikeza imvume yokutshala izimali kwamanye amazwe. Okwamanje, abatshalizimali bakwamanye amazwe kudingeka kuphela ukuthi bamise inkampani efanele e-Indonesia futhi bafake izicelo zamalayisense adingekayo ngohlelo lwe-OSS. Lapho zithola amalayisense anjalo, izinkampani zivunyelwe ukwenza ibhizinisi e-Indonesia. I-BKPM yenza ukuqapha kwangemva kokuvalwa kwezinkampani zokutshalwa kwezimali zangaphandle ngokusekelwe embikweni wazo wokutshalwa kwezimali oyisibopho. Ngokugada okunjalo kwangemva kokuvalwa, ngokwentshisekelo yezwe, i-BKPM inobuhlakani bokwenqaba ukutshalwa kwezimali okufunwa ukwenziwa emikhakheni yebhizinisi evalekile ekutshalweni kwezimali kwamanye amazwe.



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